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The descendents of Cypriots

How can we solve it? (keep it civilized)

Postby kurupetos » Fri Mar 25, 2011 5:58 pm

quattro wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:
Klik wrote:this topic is begging for some real valid answers....


Comming soon. :D

Twra esastikame kala :)


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Postby yialousa1971 » Sat Mar 26, 2011 3:51 am

Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage


http://www.eupedia.com/europe/european_y-dna_haplogroups.shtml


Image

Haplogroup I2 might have originated in southeastern Europe some 17,000 years ago and developed into four main subgroups : I2a1, I2a2, I2b1 and I2b2.

I2a1 (formerly I1b2) is found chiefly among the Sardinians and the Basques, and is rarely found outside Iberia, Western France, the West coast of Italy and the Mediterranean coast of the Maghreb. It accounts for approximately 40% of all Y-DNA haplogroups among the Sardinians. I2a1 is estimated to be 8,000 years old.

I2a2 (formerly I1b) is typical of the Dinaric Slavs (Croats, Serbs and Bosniaks). Its highest density is observed around ex-Yugoslavia and Moldova, but it is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Northern Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, and southwestern Russia. The high concentratio of I2a2 in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture before it was swallowed by the Indo-European Corded Ware culture. This could mean that the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture was a native European group of hunter-gatherers who adopted farming after coming in contact (with perhaps some intermarriages) with the Levantine farmers who settled in the Balkans (haplogroups E-V13, J2b and T).

The modern territory of I2a1 and I2a2 (Illyria, Italy, Sardinia, Mediterranean coast of France and Spain) matches the extent of the Neolithic Printed-Cardium Pottery culture (5000-1500 BCE), that is believed to have started with the arrival of E-V13 and G2a farmers and herders from Thessaly (northern Greece). It was followed by the Terramare culture (1500-1000 BCE) in the Bronze Age. The R1b Celto-Italic people are thought to have crossed the Alps and invaded the Italian peninsula around 1,000 BCE, replacing most of the indigenous I2a, G2a and E-V13 people (especially in the northern half).

I2b (formerly I1c) is associated with the pre Celto-Germanic people of North-Western Europe, such as the megaliths builders (5000-1200 BCE). The wide variety of STR markers within I2b could make it as much as 13,000 years old.

I2b is found in all Western Europe, but apparently survived better the Indo-European invasions (=> see R1b above) in northern Germany, and was reintroduced by the Germanic invasions during the late Roman period. Nowadays, I2b peaks in central and northern Germany (10-20%), the Benelux (10-15%) as well as in northern Sweden. It is also found in 3 to 10% of the inhabitants of Denmark, East England, and Northern France. It is rare in Norway, which concords with the fact that it hasn't been invaded by people from northern Germany.

There are two major subclades : I2b1 (M223+) and I2b2 (L38/S154+), further subdivided in at least 4 subclades each, although little is known about them yet. The subclade I2b1a (M284+) occurs almost exclusively in Britain, where it seemingly developed about 3,000 years ago.


Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly E3b) represents the last major migration out of Africa into Europe. It is believed to have first appeared in the Horn of Africa or southern Africa approximately 26,000 years ago and dispersed to the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods.

On the European continent it has the highest concentration in north-west Greece, Albania and Kosovo, then fading around the Balkans, the rest of Greece and Western Turkey. Outside Europe, it is also found in most of the Middle East, northern and eastern Africa, especially in Morocco, Lybia, Egypt Yemen, Somalia, Ethiopia and South Africa.

E1b1b1a (or E-M78, formerly E3b1a) is the most common variety of haplogroup E among Europeans and Near Easterners. E-M78 is thought to have migrated out of Egypt in the early Neolithic to colonise the Levant, Anatolia and Greece, where it mixed with the J2 inhabitants. Near-Eastern farmers settled in northern Greece circa 8,500 years ago, launching the Thessalian Neolithic (6500-2500 BCE). Looking at a map of E1b1b1a, one would almost think that this lineage came straight from Egypt to Greece, or at least from the southern Levant to Greece. The lower incidence of E1b1b1a in Syria and Anatolia is almost certainly due to the competition from the other major Neolithic haplogroups : G2 and J2.

E-M78 is divided into 4 main branches : E1b1b1a1 (E-V12), E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), E1b1b1a3 (E-V22) and E1b1b1a4 (E-V65), each further subdivided in "a" and "b" subclades.

E-V13 is one of the major markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farming from the Levant. Like all the other subclades of E1b1b1a, E-V13 originated in North-East Africa around the end of the last Ice Age. Its frequency is now far higher in Greece, South Italy and the Balkans than anywhere else due to a founder effect, i.e. the migration of a small group of settlers carrying mostly this lineage (but also a small amount of other North-East African lineages, notably E-M123 and T). Archeological evidence shows that the region of Thessaly, in northern Greece, was the starting point (circa 6,000 BCE) for the diffusion of agriculture through the Balkans and the Danube basin, as far as northern France to the west and Russia to the east. The modern distribution of E-V13 hints at a strong correlation with the Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures of Old Europe, such as the Vinča, Boian, Maritsa and Karanovo, cultures. Owing to this early introduction to Europe, E-V13 is now by far the most common E subclade found among Europeans. E-V13 is also associated with the ancient Greek expansion and colonisation. Outside of the Balkans and Central Europe, it is particularly common in Southern Italy, Cyprus and Southern France, all part of the Classcical ancient Greek world.

E-V22 is the predominant subclade in the Levant and is therefore associated with the Phoenicians and Jews, in addition to the spread of agriculture. The Phoenicians could have spread E-V22 to Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain and the Maghreb, and the Jews to Greece and mainland Italy and Spain. However, the Mediterranean route for the diffusion of agriculture (see map below) went through the exact same regions. It is therefore impossible to know at present which of the two periods (Neolithic or Classical Antiquity) played the stronger role in the spread of V22 around the Mediterranean.

E-V12 is the most common subclade of M78 in Egypt. Its low presence around Greece and Anatolia indicates that it probably already existed when E moved there in the early Neolithic.

E-V65 is found in North Africa, with a maximum frequency in Lybia, then Morocco. It is also likely to have originated in Egypt. In Europe it is found at low frequencies in Greece and Sicily, but interestingly makes up one fourth of Sardinian E. It could be due to immigration from the Phoenician colonies in the Maghreb to Sardinia (the Sardinian haplogroup I2a1 is also present at low frequencies along the coast of Algeria and Tunisia, confirming exchanges of population between the two regions, maybe when both were Phoenician colonies).

E1b1b1b (E-M81, formerly E3b1b) is characteristic of the Berbers of North-West Africa. In some parts of Morocco E1b1b1b can peak at 80% of the population. This sub-hapolgroup is also found in Iberia, Italy and southern France, with the highest concentrations in southern Portugal (12%) and decreasing as we move north.

E1b1b1c (E-M123) and its main branch E1b1b1c1 (E-M34) is also associated with the diffusion of agriculture. This haplogroup peaks in the southern Levant (10-12% in Palestine and Lebanon), from where it expands in all directions over the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia and South-East Europe. The distribution of E-M123 matches almost exactly the expansion of farming (see map below) during the Neolithic period. E-M123 seems to go hand in hand with haplogroup G and J2, with the difference that G and J2 both reach their maximum frequencies around the Caucasus and Anatolia, where cattle, pigs and goats where first domesticated. Inside Europe, E-M123 follows more or less the distribution of E-V13, with the highest frequency (1 to 5%) observed in Greece, South Italy, the Balkans and the Danube basin, then fading towards Germany, Poland, Ukraine and Russia, where its frequency is under 1%.
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Postby Get Real! » Sat Mar 26, 2011 5:13 am

yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage

It looks like the only similarities Cypriots have with Greeks and/or Cretans is the yellow highlighting you added! Image

Did you actually bother to compare the figures?
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Postby Piratis » Sat Mar 26, 2011 7:07 am

Get Real! wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage

It looks like the only similarities Cypriots have with Greeks and/or Cretans is the yellow highlighting you added! Image

Did you actually bother to compare the figures?


The similarities between Cyprus and other Greek territories is closer than that between French territories or between German territories.

Every place is a bit different. If you compared Paphos with Larnaca the result would still be different.

This is yet another proof that an ethnicity or a nation is not about genes, since variation exists within all nations.
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Postby denizaksulu » Sat Mar 26, 2011 12:32 pm

yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage


http://www.eupedia.com/europe/european_y-dna_haplogroups.shtml


Image

Haplogroup I2 might have originated in southeastern Europe some 17,000 years ago and developed into four main subgroups : I2a1, I2a2, I2b1 and I2b2.

I2a1 (formerly I1b2) is found chiefly among the Sardinians and the Basques, and is rarely found outside Iberia, Western France, the West coast of Italy and the Mediterranean coast of the Maghreb. It accounts for approximately 40% of all Y-DNA haplogroups among the Sardinians. I2a1 is estimated to be 8,000 years old.

I2a2 (formerly I1b) is typical of the Dinaric Slavs (Croats, Serbs and Bosniaks). Its highest density is observed around ex-Yugoslavia and Moldova, but it is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Northern Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, and southwestern Russia. The high concentratio of I2a2 in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture before it was swallowed by the Indo-European Corded Ware culture. This could mean that the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture was a native European group of hunter-gatherers who adopted farming after coming in contact (with perhaps some intermarriages) with the Levantine farmers who settled in the Balkans (haplogroups E-V13, J2b and T).

The modern territory of I2a1 and I2a2 (Illyria, Italy, Sardinia, Mediterranean coast of France and Spain) matches the extent of the Neolithic Printed-Cardium Pottery culture (5000-1500 BCE), that is believed to have started with the arrival of E-V13 and G2a farmers and herders from Thessaly (northern Greece). It was followed by the Terramare culture (1500-1000 BCE) in the Bronze Age. The R1b Celto-Italic people are thought to have crossed the Alps and invaded the Italian peninsula around 1,000 BCE, replacing most of the indigenous I2a, G2a and E-V13 people (especially in the northern half).

I2b (formerly I1c) is associated with the pre Celto-Germanic people of North-Western Europe, such as the megaliths builders (5000-1200 BCE). The wide variety of STR markers within I2b could make it as much as 13,000 years old.

I2b is found in all Western Europe, but apparently survived better the Indo-European invasions (=> see R1b above) in northern Germany, and was reintroduced by the Germanic invasions during the late Roman period. Nowadays, I2b peaks in central and northern Germany (10-20%), the Benelux (10-15%) as well as in northern Sweden. It is also found in 3 to 10% of the inhabitants of Denmark, East England, and Northern France. It is rare in Norway, which concords with the fact that it hasn't been invaded by people from northern Germany.

There are two major subclades : I2b1 (M223+) and I2b2 (L38/S154+), further subdivided in at least 4 subclades each, although little is known about them yet. The subclade I2b1a (M284+) occurs almost exclusively in Britain, where it seemingly developed about 3,000 years ago.


Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly E3b) represents the last major migration out of Africa into Europe. It is believed to have first appeared in the Horn of Africa or southern Africa approximately 26,000 years ago and dispersed to the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods.

On the European continent it has the highest concentration in north-west Greece, Albania and Kosovo, then fading around the Balkans, the rest of Greece and Western Turkey. Outside Europe, it is also found in most of the Middle East, northern and eastern Africa, especially in Morocco, Lybia, Egypt Yemen, Somalia, Ethiopia and South Africa.

E1b1b1a (or E-M78, formerly E3b1a) is the most common variety of haplogroup E among Europeans and Near Easterners. E-M78 is thought to have migrated out of Egypt in the early Neolithic to colonise the Levant, Anatolia and Greece, where it mixed with the J2 inhabitants. Near-Eastern farmers settled in northern Greece circa 8,500 years ago, launching the Thessalian Neolithic (6500-2500 BCE). Looking at a map of E1b1b1a, one would almost think that this lineage came straight from Egypt to Greece, or at least from the southern Levant to Greece. The lower incidence of E1b1b1a in Syria and Anatolia is almost certainly due to the competition from the other major Neolithic haplogroups : G2 and J2.

E-M78 is divided into 4 main branches : E1b1b1a1 (E-V12), E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), E1b1b1a3 (E-V22) and E1b1b1a4 (E-V65), each further subdivided in "a" and "b" subclades.

E-V13 is one of the major markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farming from the Levant. Like all the other subclades of E1b1b1a, E-V13 originated in North-East Africa around the end of the last Ice Age. Its frequency is now far higher in Greece, South Italy and the Balkans than anywhere else due to a founder effect, i.e. the migration of a small group of settlers carrying mostly this lineage (but also a small amount of other North-East African lineages, notably E-M123 and T). Archeological evidence shows that the region of Thessaly, in northern Greece, was the starting point (circa 6,000 BCE) for the diffusion of agriculture through the Balkans and the Danube basin, as far as northern France to the west and Russia to the east. The modern distribution of E-V13 hints at a strong correlation with the Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures of Old Europe, such as the Vinča, Boian, Maritsa and Karanovo, cultures. Owing to this early introduction to Europe, E-V13 is now by far the most common E subclade found among Europeans. E-V13 is also associated with the ancient Greek expansion and colonisation. Outside of the Balkans and Central Europe, it is particularly common in Southern Italy, Cyprus and Southern France, all part of the Classcical ancient Greek world.

E-V22 is the predominant subclade in the Levant and is therefore associated with the Phoenicians and Jews, in addition to the spread of agriculture. The Phoenicians could have spread E-V22 to Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain and the Maghreb, and the Jews to Greece and mainland Italy and Spain. However, the Mediterranean route for the diffusion of agriculture (see map below) went through the exact same regions. It is therefore impossible to know at present which of the two periods (Neolithic or Classical Antiquity) played the stronger role in the spread of V22 around the Mediterranean.

E-V12 is the most common subclade of M78 in Egypt. Its low presence around Greece and Anatolia indicates that it probably already existed when E moved there in the early Neolithic.

E-V65 is found in North Africa, with a maximum frequency in Lybia, then Morocco. It is also likely to have originated in Egypt. In Europe it is found at low frequencies in Greece and Sicily, but interestingly makes up one fourth of Sardinian E. It could be due to immigration from the Phoenician colonies in the Maghreb to Sardinia (the Sardinian haplogroup I2a1 is also present at low frequencies along the coast of Algeria and Tunisia, confirming exchanges of population between the two regions, maybe when both were Phoenician colonies).

E1b1b1b (E-M81, formerly E3b1b) is characteristic of the Berbers of North-West Africa. In some parts of Morocco E1b1b1b can peak at 80% of the population. This sub-hapolgroup is also found in Iberia, Italy and southern France, with the highest concentrations in southern Portugal (12%) and decreasing as we move north.

E1b1b1c (E-M123) and its main branch E1b1b1c1 (E-M34) is also associated with the diffusion of agriculture. This haplogroup peaks in the southern Levant (10-12% in Palestine and Lebanon), from where it expands in all directions over the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia and South-East Europe. The distribution of E-M123 matches almost exactly the expansion of farming (see map below) during the Neolithic period. E-M123 seems to go hand in hand with haplogroup G and J2, with the difference that G and J2 both reach their maximum frequencies around the Caucasus and Anatolia, where cattle, pigs and goats where first domesticated. Inside Europe, E-M123 follows more or less the distribution of E-V13, with the highest frequency (1 to 5%) observed in Greece, South Italy, the Balkans and the Danube basin, then fading towards Germany, Poland, Ukraine and Russia, where its frequency is under 1%.



...and YOUR conclusion is? :lol:
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Postby yialousa1971 » Sat Mar 26, 2011 12:57 pm

Get Real! wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage

It looks like the only similarities Cypriots have with Greeks and/or Cretans is the yellow highlighting you added! Image

Did you actually bother to compare the figures?


Image


You've just proved that you're a clown. As Piratis said variation exists within any nation but you're just too stupid/dumb or just trying post about something you know nothing about.

Here we look at variation within Greece:-

Image

As we can see the same haplogroups exist in Cyprus:-

Image

The only haplogroups missing in Cyprus are I1 and I2b but these are all subgroups from the main haplogroup I2which is where I2a also comes from!
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Postby Get Real! » Sat Mar 26, 2011 1:09 pm

yialousa1971 wrote:
Get Real! wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage

It looks like the only similarities Cypriots have with Greeks and/or Cretans is the yellow highlighting you added! [url=http://www.postimage.org/][img][img]http://img59.imageshack.us/img59/8521/capture3pa.png[/img]

As we can see the same haplogroups exist in Cyprus:-

Image

The only haplogroups missing in Cyprus are I1 and I2b but these are all subgroups from the main haplogroup I2which is where I2a also comes from!

It's a perfect match alright! Image[/url]

Better have your eyes checked too just in case... :wink:
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Postby yialousa1971 » Sat Mar 26, 2011 1:17 pm

Get Real! wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:
Get Real! wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage

It looks like the only similarities Cypriots have with Greeks and/or Cretans is the yellow highlighting you added! [url=http://www.postimage.org/][img][img]http://img59.imageshack.us/img59/8521/capture3pa.png[/img]

As we can see the same haplogroups exist in Cyprus:-

Image

The only haplogroups missing in Cyprus are I1 and I2b but these are all subgroups from the main haplogroup I2which is where I2a also comes from!

It's a perfect match alright! Image[/url]

Better have your eyes checked too just in case... :wink:


Are the three samples from Greece the same, no thats what we call variation dip shit!
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Postby yialousa1971 » Sat Mar 26, 2011 1:23 pm

Piratis wrote:
Get Real! wrote:
yialousa1971 wrote:Distribution of European Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups by country in percentage

It looks like the only similarities Cypriots have with Greeks and/or Cretans is the yellow highlighting you added! Image

Did you actually bother to compare the figures?


The similarities between Cyprus and other Greek territories is closer than that between French territories or between German territories.

Every place is a bit different. If you compared Paphos with Larnaca the result would still be different.

This is yet another proof that an ethnicity or a nation is not about genes, since variation exists within all nations.


Why is this clown (GR) allowed to post here? Can't you restrict him to the Sports/Entertainment and Jokes and Enigmas sections only?
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Postby Sotos » Sat Mar 26, 2011 1:35 pm

E-V13 is one of the major markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farming from the Levant. Like all the other subclades of E1b1b1a, E-V13 originated in North-East Africa around the end of the last Ice Age. Its frequency is now far higher in Greece, South Italy and the Balkans than anywhere else due to a founder effect, i.e. the migration of a small group of settlers carrying mostly this lineage (but also a small amount of other North-East African lineages, notably E-M123 and T). Archeological evidence shows that the region of Thessaly, in northern Greece, was the starting point (circa 6,000 BCE) for the diffusion of agriculture through the Balkans and the Danube basin, as far as northern France to the west and Russia to the east. The modern distribution of E-V13 hints at a strong correlation with the Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures of Old Europe, such as the Vinča, Boian, Maritsa and Karanovo, cultures. Owing to this early introduction to Europe, E-V13 is now by far the most common E subclade found among Europeans. E-V13 is also associated with the ancient Greek expansion and colonisation. Outside of the Balkans and Central Europe, it is particularly common in Southern Italy, Cyprus and Southern France, all part of the Classcical ancient Greek world.


http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_h ... rope.shtml
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